There are also consortia of for-profit companies, but they are less common. One of the best-known for-profit consortia is the airline manufacturer Airbus Industrie GIE. European aircraft manufacturers are working together in the consortium to produce and sell commercial aircraft. As noted above, the differences between consortium and joint ventures are imperceptible and are often used interchangeably. However, the main differences between the consortium and the joint ventures are as follows: Another example is the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a consortium that standardizes web technologies such as HTML, XML, and CSS. The list can be easily extended. This alone indicates that the consortium is a popular tool for cooperation between equal, economically and legally independent people. You can have a consortium agreement between two companies, colleges, universities, governments, or other for-profit or non-profit organizations. To illustrate the complexity of such an agreement, Airbus` four partner companies (British Aerospace, Aerospace, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA and DASA) were both subcontractors and shareholders of the consortium. This agreement led to conflicts of interest and inefficiencies, and eventually to a move to Airbus SAS in 2001, which led to a consolidation of the consortium`s original members and a reduction in overheads.
If the student does not receive assistance at the KU, the FAS will review the ku enrolment (we can only do this if the student is actually enrolled), provide information on attendance costs and fill in any additional points of the consortium agreement. In some cases, schools require the registrar to sign the agreement. The Deputy Director of the FAS must sign and date the consortium agreement. An example of a nonprofit consortium is the Appalachian College Association (ACA), based in Richmond, Kentucky. The association consists of 35 private liberal arts colleges and universities spread across the central Appalachian Mountains of Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Together, these colleges serve approximately 42,500 students. Six research universities in the region (University of Kentucky, University of North Carolina, University of Tennessee, West Virginia University, Virginia University and Virginia Tech) are affiliated with the ACA. These institutions assist the ACA in reviewing applications for grants and scholarships, organizing workshops, and providing technical assistance. The ACA works to serve higher education in rural areas of these five states. Consortia are often found in the non-profit sector, for example in educational institutions. Educational consortia often pool resources such as libraries, research activities and professors and share them with group members to help their students.
Several groups of North American colleges and universities work as consortia. A consortium can be formed between individuals, companies, governments, non-profit organizations, or any combination of business units that pool resources to achieve the consortium`s goal. In addition, a joint venture is often more relevant when it comes to obtaining financing and project support, as the joint venture is considered a child of the project promoters, while in a consortium, the individual team members retain their identity and, therefore, a consortium agreement is not a solid document for obtaining such funding. FAS creates a copy of the completed and signed consortium agreement for FAS files, emails the consortium agreement to the home school, periodically reviews the student`s enrollment, and informs the host school of changes to enrollment. What is a consortium and what types and forms of consortia are there? You can also have a consortium that can form a separate legal entity to achieve the consortium`s goal. The consortium agreement must be sufficiently detailed to show that the project is managed with the balanced cooperation of the participants. The agreement ensures that all partners contribute to and benefit from fair cooperation and that the results of cooperation projects are distributed equitably through a controlled process of protecting the parties and the allocation of intellectual property rights, such as. B marks, which can be created during the cooperation project. If a KU student seeking a degree has a valid and approved academic reason to apply for a consortium agreement, KU serves as a “home school”.
Students who do not wish to pursue studies can apply to the KU to act as a “host school” and request a consortium agreement on the corresponding “home school”. The Tornado was designed and built by Panavia Aircraft GmbH, a trinational consortium consisting of British Aerospace (formerly British Aircraft Corporation), MBB of West Germany and Aeritalia of Italy. [Citation needed] A consortium agreement is an agreement between two colleges or universities to recognize your registration at each location for financial support purposes. It also certifies that only one of the two institutions can manage your Title IV and the financial assistance from the State. Coopetition is a word coined by cooperation and competition. It is used when companies that are otherwise competitors work together in a consortium to collaborate in areas that are not strategic to their core business. They prefer to reduce their costs in these non-strategic areas and be competitive in other areas where they can better differentiate themselves. In the case of public works contracts, sole proprietorships are often invited to form a consortium to ensure the necessary capacities and guarantees. In the construction industry, these consortia are called ARGE (which means the German term Arbeitsgemeinschaft). If the consortium agreement is approved by fasm, the deputy director will draft the consortium agreement and send it to the host school by email. In summary, if you have your prequalification criteria and the financing of your project in hand, opt for a consortium to spread the risk and get good value for money.
A consortium is easy to form and execute. In the United States and throughout Europe, there are differences between consortia and joint ventures. In the United States, consortia are widely used in the nonprofit sector, especially educational institutions, and include, for example, the Five College Consortium in Massachusetts, the Quaker Consortium, Claremont Colleges, and the Big Ten Academic Alliance. On the other hand, consortia are rarely used in for-profit sectors, but joint ventures are extremely popular with business owners and entrepreneurs who want to team up and collaborate on a project or business. Although consortia tend to share resources, they act independently when it comes to day-to-day operations. In a joint venture (JV), two or more parties typically share ownership of a company, as well as risks, profits, losses, and governance. If the host school accepts the terms of the consortium agreement, the form will be completed, signed and returned to KU FAS. Schools are not required to enter into consortium agreements, so it is at the discretion of each institution to enter into such an agreement.